Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

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Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

Same-sex behavior that is sexual

Every 2-minute period that were coded as containing one or more types of sexual intercourse monitored in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, sexual intercourse suggested, sexual activity depicted, as well as other intimate behavior 2 had been additionally examined when it comes to presence of same-sex behavior that is sexual. With this product, programmers utilized a yes/no response format to indicate whether some of the sexual behavior depicted into the period happened between a couple associated with exact same intercourse.

Speak about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual

Each 2-minute period that have been coded as containing one or more instance of talk through the intimate talk categories utilized in the key coding task ( e.g., remarks about own/others’ intimate actions or passions, speak about sexual activity who has currently occurred, speak about sex crimes) ended up being additionally coded for whether some of the intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals. Because of this item, programmers once once again utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the intimate talk reflected the intimate passions or concerns of nonheterosexual people. Most frequently, such responses linked to gays and lesbians, although sporadically these were related to bisexuals.

Intimate reviews involving homosexual and lesbian recommendations can have purposes apart from portraying the intimate issues among these teams such as for example use by right figures to reaffirm their heterosexuality or even tease another individual. Hence, requirements had been founded to ensure this product had been coded “yes” for a period only if speak about sex involving nonheterosexual references really addressed sexual dilemmas of gays, lesbians, or bisexuals; otherwise, the responses had been coded within their appropriate talk that is sexual but did not count toward a yes reaction because of this item. For instance, if a character that is male to guard his present dating dry spell and not enough sex-life by asserting, “Well, it isn’t like i am homosexual; i recently have not met the best girl!” such a comment could have been coded in the primary coding task when you look at the intimate talk category “own/others’ intimate passions or actions” because he made a mention of their intimate sex cam live desire for females, however the mention of the perhaps perhaps perhaps not being homosexual wouldn’t normally have counted toward an optimistic a reaction to the item on speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems.

System Coding

Coder training

For the year that is first content analysis, 16 pupils (10 females, 6 males) from neighborhood universities served as coders; into the second year, 13 programmers (8 females, 5 men) who had been either present students or current graduates carried out the information coding. Six regarding the programmers labored on both content analyses. The stages of coder training included orientation towards the coding task and codebook, big team coding of programs maybe not within the test with supervisors, last but not least specific coding of training programs where programmers evaluated shows separately after which talked about the outcomes period by period in regular conferences. Initial dependability analyses had been carried out on information gathered through the specific practice stage of training to ascertain when programmers could continue because of the real coding task. The dependability analyses presented below, nevertheless, relate genuinely to assessments of coder contract acquired through the coding of a subset of programs within the system examples.

Coding procedures

Programmers viewed sequential 2-minute periods of system time and coded the absence or presence of intimate behavior and speak about sex regarding nonheterosexuals. Whilst the coding ended up being confined to system content and excluded commercials as well as other promotions, programmers utilized kitchen area timers while the counters regarding the videocassette recorders to trace 2-minute periods of program time. Coders recorded information on scannable kinds for every interval while they viewed it. Although programmers had been permitted to carry information forward (i.e., use information presented in previous periods to comprehend the information in subsequent people), these people were maybe perhaps not permitted to rule backwards (for example., use information learned later in a scheduled program to return and alter the coding in an early on period). All opening credits and people shutting credits combined with content through the episode that is currenti.e., your final scene) had been coded.

Interrater Reliability Analyses

Around 11 to 12per cent associated with the programs into the system examples (letter = 157 and n = 154 for the very very first and 2nd content analyses, correspondingly) had been randomly assigned to two coders for independent coding and reliability evaluation. The coders then met to resolve any discrepancies in the two sets of ratings and produce a final set of ratings for the show that was used in data analyses of the entire program sample after both coders’ data had been recorded and analyzed for reliability purposes. Assessment of dependability had been carried out on an ongoing basis throughout the 4 to 5 months it took programmers to accomplish the complete system test every year. Programs out of every genre and each system kind had been contained in the dependability analyses. Genres were represented within the double-coded examples in approximate percentage with their representation when you look at the general system examples.

The number of 2-minute intervals coded for each variable related to sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to gauge the frequency with which same-sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode for purposes of reliability assessment. This summing lead to converting nominal data (i.e., presence/absence) in the 2-minute-interval degree into regularity counts in the system degree (wide range of periods for which same-sex sexual behavior took place in the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses used the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an assessment associated with the proportion of variance within the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information for instance the regularity matters utilized right right right here, the ICC is equivalent to Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 ended up being utilized while the criterion for appropriate dependability. Both things utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably exceeded this criterion. The ICC for same-sex behavior that is sexual .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems ended up being .89 in year 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.